Discurso indireto (1)

Tempo de leitura: menos de 1 minuto

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A: Have you heard this crazy story about Dave?
B: Yes. Jim told me. He told that said that / told me that Dave ate a fish and found a gold ring in it.
A: Do you believe in it? Which restaurant was this? Who else was there?
B: Well, Jim said told me that Ann was there.
A: What does she say? Has anyone spoken to her?
B: I haven’t, and when I saw Jim yesterday afternoon, he said that he hasn’t hadn’t spoken to her either.

Discurso direto (direct speech) versus discurso indireto (indirect speech)

  • O que alguém diz pode ser citado diretamente ou relatado indiretamente.
    • Discurso direto
      • Ann said, “Tom is an idiot.”
      • A Ann disse: “O Tom é um idiota”.
    • Discurso indireto
      • Ann said that Tom was an idiot.
      • A Ann disse que o Tom é um idiota.
    • Pensamentos também podem ser relatados.
      • Pensamento: “Sally will be late.” > Relato: I thought/knew that Sally would be late.
  • Say ou tell introduzem na maioria das vezes o discurso indireto. O verbo tell vem antes da pessoa a quem se diz algo. Quando essa pessoa não é mencionada, usa-se o verbo say.
    • He told me (told) that he knows London well.
    • Ele me disse que conhece bem Londres.
    • He said (said me) that he knows London well.
    • Ele disse que conhece bem Londres.
  • Thatmuitas vezes é omitido.
    • Tony said that (said, that) he will be here at six.
    • Ann said she (said, she) loves fish.

Transposição temporal no discurso indireto

  • Caso o verbo introdutório do discurso indireto esteja no passado (p. ex., said), o verbo da frase relatada freqüentemente é transposto para o passado.
    • presente > passado
      • “I feel ill.” > She said (that) she felt ill.
      • “I‘m working.” > She said (that) she was working.
    • present perfect> past perfect
      • “I‘ve had a dream”. > She said (that) she had had a dream.
    • can/may > could/might
      • “I can/may come.” > She said (that) she could/might come.
    • will > would
      • “I‘ll be there.” > She said (that) she would be there.
  • Os verbos no passado (a não ser no present perfect) e os modal verbs could, might, should e wouldpermanecem quase todos inalterados.
    • passado
      • “We saw Tom there.” > She said they saw (ou: had seen) Tom there.
      • “He was smoking.” > She said he was (ou: had been) smoking.
    • past perfect
      • “I had eaten.” > She said she had eaten.
    • could / might / should
      • “I could help.” > She said she could help.
    • would
      • “I wouldn’t tell him.” > She said she wouldn’t tell him.

Cf. Gramática: Modal verbs (1): CAN
Cf. Gramática: Modal verbs (3): CAN, MAY, MIGHT, COULD
Cf. Present Perfect

  • Uma transposição temporal não ocorre necessariamente quando o relatado vale ainda ou sempre.
    • “When I see him, I‘ll ask him.” > She said she‘ll ask him when she sees him. He’ll be here soon.
  • A transposição temporal é escolhida pelo falante quando ele quer se distanciar do relatado e indicar que não garante a veracidade deste.
    • Político: “Inflation is low.” > Relato no jornal: The government said that inflation was low.

RESUMO

  • Transposição temporal com o verbo introdutório no passado: presente > passado, present perfect > past perfect, can > could, may > might, will > would

Referência: “Grammar – No problem” – Christine House e John Stevens, Disal Editora, 2005. Leia a resenha.

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[…] Cf. Discurso indireto (1) […]

pamela duarte
pamela duarte
11 anos atrás

Em “He told me (told) that he knows London well” não seria:

He told me that he KNEW London well? com o verbo no passado?

Thanks in advance!

Liliane Cercato
8 anos atrás

Olá Ulisses,

Agora fiquei confusa… Porque é?

“I feel ill” > She told that she “felt” ill (present>past)

No caso da pergunta, o verbo “to know” permanece no presente?

He told me he “knows” e não He told me he “knew”?

A regra não se aplica ao verbo “to know”?

Obrigada desde já.